《国际湿地公约》(拉姆萨尔公约) (The Ramsar Convention)全文

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国际湿地公约(拉姆萨尔公约) (The Ramsar Convention)


 


国际湿地公约《拉姆萨尔公约》全文如下:

1971年2月2日订于拉姆萨,经1982年3月 12日议定书修正)各缔约国,承认人类同其环境的相互依存关系;考虑到湿地的调节水份循环和维持湿地特有的动植物特别是水禽栖息地的基本生态功能。

相信湿地为具有巨大经济、文化、科学及娱乐价值的资源,其损失将不可弥补;

期望现在及将来阻止湿地的被逐步侵蚀及丧失;

承认季节性迁徒中的水禽可能超越国界,因此应被视为国际性资源;

确信远见卓识的国内政策与协调一致的国际行动相结合能够确保对湿地及其动植物的保护;

兹协议如下:

第一条

1.为本公约的目的,湿地系指不问其为天然或人工、常久或暂时之沼泽地、湿原、泥炭地或水域地带,带有或静止或流动、或为淡水、半咸水或咸水水体者,包括低潮时水深不超过六米的水域。

2.为本公约的目的,水禽系指生态学上依赖于湿地的鸟类。

第二条

1.各缔约国应指定其领域内的适当湿地列入由依第八条所设管理局保管的国际重要湿地名册,下称“名册”。每一湿地的界线应精确记述并标记在地图上,并可包括邻接湿地的河湖沿岸、沿海区域以及湿地范围的岛域或低潮时水深不超过六米的水域,特别是当其具有水禽栖息地意义时。

2.选入名册的湿地应根据其在生态学上、植物学上、湖沼学上和水文学上的国际意义。首先应选入在所有季节对水禽具有国际重要性的湿地;

3.选入名册的湿地不妨碍湿地所在地缔约国的专属主权权利。

4.各缔约国按第九条规定签署本公约或交存批准书或加入书时,应至少指定一处湿地列入名册。

5.任何缔约国应有权将其境内的湿地增列入名册,扩大已列名册的湿地的界线或由于紧急的国家利益将已列入名册的湿地销或缩小其范围,并应尽早将任何上述变更通知第八条规定的负责执行局职责的有关组织或政府。

6. 各缔约国在指定列入名册的湿地时或行使变更名册中与其领土内湿地有关的记录时,应考虑其对水禽迁移种群的养护、管理和合理利用的国际责任。

第三条

1.缔约国应制定并实施其计划以促进已列入名册的湿地的养护并尽可能地促进其境内湿地的合理利用。

2.如其境内的及列入名册的任何湿地的生态特征由于技术发展、污染和其他人类干扰而已经改变,正在改变或将可能改变,各缔约国应尽早相互通报。有关这些变化的情况,应不延迟地转告按第八条所规定的负责执行局职责的组织或政府。

第四条

1. 缔约国应设置湿地自然保护区,无论该湿地是否已列入名册,以促进湿地和水禽的养护并应对其进行充分的监护。

2.缔约国因其紧急的国家利益需对已列入名册的湿地撤销或缩小其范围时,应尽可能地补偿湿地资源的任何丧失,特别是应为水禽及保护原栖息地适当部分而在同一地区或在其他地方设立另外的自然保护区。

3. 缔约国应鼓励关于混地及其动植物的研究及数据资料和出版物的交换。

4 .缔约国应努力通过管理增加适当湿地上水禽的数量。

5. 缔约国应促进能胜任湿地研究、管理及监护人员的训练。

第五条

缔约国应就履行本公约的义务相互协商,特别是当一片湿地跨越一个以上缔约国领土或多个缔约国共处同一水系时。同时,他们应尽力协调和支持有关养护湿地及其动植物的现行和未来政策与规定。

第六条

1.缔约国应在必要时召集关于养护湿地和水禽的会议。

2.这种会议应是咨询性的,并除其他外,有权:

A.讨论本公约的实施情况;

B. 讨论名册之增加和变更事项;

C. 审议关于依第三条第2款所规定的列入名册湿地生态学特征变化的情况;

D. 向缔约国提出关于湿地及其动植物的养护、管理和合理利用的一般性或具体建议;

E.要求有关国际机构就影响湿地、本质上属于国际性的事项编制报告和统计资料。

3. 缔约国应确保对湿地管理负有责任的各级机构知晓并考虑上述会议关于湿地及其动植物的养护、管理和合理利用的建议。

第七条

1.缔约国出席这种会议的代表,应包括以其科学、行政或其他适当职务所获得知识和经验而成为湿地或水禽方面专家的人士。

2.出席会议的每一缔约国均应有一票表决权,建议以所投票数的简单多数通过,但须不少于半数的缔约国参加投票。

第八条

1.保护自然和自然资源国际联盟应履行本公约执行局的职责,直至全体缔约国三分之二多数委派其他组织或政府时止。

2.执行局职责除其他外,应为:

A.协助召集和组织第六条规定的会议;

B.保管国际重要湿地名册并接受缔约国根据第二条第五款的规定对已列入名册的湿地增加、扩大、撤销或缩小的通知;

C.接受缔约国根据第三条第二款规定对已列入名册的湿地的生态特征发生任何变化的通知;

D.将名册的任何改变或名册内湿地特征的变化通知所有的缔约国,并安排这些事宜在下次会议上讨论;

E.将会议关于名册变更或名册内湿地特征变化的建议告知各有关缔约国。

第九条

1. 本公约将无限期开放供签署。

2.联合国或某一专门机构、国际原子能机构的任一成员国或国际法院的规约当事国均可以下述方式成为本公约的缔约方:

A.签署无须批准;

B.签署有待批准,随后再予批准;

C.加入。

3.批准或加入应以向联合国教育科学及文化组织的总干事(以下简称“保存机关”)交存批准或加入文书为生效。

第十条

1.本公约应自七个国家根据第九条第2款成为本公约缔约国四个月后生效。

2.此后,本公约应在其签署无须批准或交存批准书或加入书之日后四个月对各缔约国生效。

第十条之二

1.公约可按照本条在为此目的召开的缔约国会议上予以修正。

2.修正建议可以由任何缔约国提出。

3.所提修正案文及其理由应提交给履行执行局职责的组织或政府(以下称为执行局)并立即由执行局转送所有缔约国。缔约国对案文的任何评论应在执行局将修正案转交缔约国之日三个月内交给执行局。执行局应于提交评论最后一日后立即将至该日所提交的所有评论转交各缔约国。

4. 审议按照第3款所转交的修正案的缔约国会议应由执行局根据三分之一缔约国的书面请求召集。执行局应就会议的时间和地点同缔约国协商。

5.修正案以出席并参加投票的缔约国三分之二多数通过。

6.通过的修正案应于三分之二缔约国向保存机关交存接受书之日后第四个月第一天对接受的缔约国生效。对在三分之二的缔约国交存接受书之后交存接受书的缔约国,修正案应于其交存接受书之日后第四个月第一天生效。

第十一条

1.本公约将无限期有效。

2.任何缔约国可以于公约对其生效之日起五年后以书面通知保存机关退出本公约。退出应于保存机关收到退出通知之日后四个月生效。

第十二条

1.保存机关应尽快将以下事项通知签署和加入本公约的所有国家:

A.公约的签署;

B.公约批准书的交存;

C.公约加入书的交存;

D.公约的生效日期;

E.退出公约的通知。

3.一候本公约开始生效,保存人应按照联合国宪章第一百零二条将本公约向联合国秘书处登记。

下列签字者经正式授权,谨签字于本公约,以资证明。

一九七一年二月二日订于拉姆萨,正本一份,以英文、法文、德文和俄文写成,所有文本具有同等效力,保存于保存机关,保存机关应将核证无误副本分送所有的缔约国。

 
原文如下:

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

Especially as Waterfowl Habitat

Final Text adopted by the International Conference on the Wetlands and Waterfowl at Ramsar, Iran, 2 February 1971

The Contracting Parties,

Recognising the interdependence of man and his environment;

Considering the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands as regulators of water regimes and as habitats supporting a characteristic flora and fauna, especially waterfowl;

Being convinced that wetlands constitute a resource of great economic, cultural, scientific and recreational value, the loss of which would be irreparable;

Desiring to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future;

Recognising that waterfowl in their seasonal migrations may transcend frontiers and so should be regarded as an international resource;

Being confident that the conservation of wetlands and their flora and fauna can be ensured by combining far-sighted national policies with co-ordinated international action;

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

1. For the purpose of this Convention wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.

2. For the purpose of this Convention waterfowl are birds ecologically dependent on wetlands.

Article 2

1. Each Contracting Party shall designate suitable wetlands within its territory for inclusion in a List of Wetlands of International Importance, hereinafter referred to as "the List" which is maintained by the bureau established under Article 8. The boundaries of each wetland shall be precisely described and also delimited on a map and they may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands, especially where these have importance as waterfowl habitat.

2. Wetlands should be selected for the List on account of their international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology. In the first instance wetlands of international importance to waterfowl at any season should be included.

3. The inclusion of a wetland in the List does not prejudice the exclusive sovereign rights of the Contracting Party in whose territory the wetland is situated.

4. Each Contracting Party shall designate at least one wetland to be included in the List when signing this Convention or when depositing its instrument of ratification or accession, as provided in Article 9.

5. Any Contracting Party shall have the right to add to the List further wetlands situated within its territory, to extend the boundaries of those wetlands already included by it in the List, or, because of its urgent national interests, to delete or restrict the boundaries of wetlands already included by it in the List and shall, at the earliest possible time, inform the organization or government responsible for the continuing bureau duties specified in Article 8 of any such changes.

6. Each Contracting Party shall consider its international responsibilities for the conservation, management and wise use of migratory stocks of waterfowl, both when designating entries for the List and when exercising its right to change entries in the List relating to wetlands within its territory.

Article 3

1. The Contracting Parties shall formulate and implement their planning so as to promote the conservation of the wetlands included in the List, and as far as possible the wise use of wetlands in their territory.

2. Each Contracting Party shall arrange to be informed at the earliest possible time if the ecological character of any wetland in its territory and included in the List has changed, is changing or is likely to change as the result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference. Information on such changes shall be passed without delay to the organization or government responsible for the continuing bureau duties specified in Article 8.

Article 4

1. Each Contracting Party shall promote the conservation of wetlands and waterfowl by establishing nature reserves on wetlands, whether they are included in the List or not, and provide adequately for their wardening.

2. Where a Contracting Party in its urgent national interest, deletes or restricts the boundaries of a wetland included in the List, it should as far as possible compensate for any loss of wetland resources, and in particular it should create additional nature reserves for waterfowl and for the protection, either in the same area or elsewhere, of an adequate portion of the original habitat.

3. The Contracting Parties shall encourage research and the exchange of data and publications regarding wetlands and their flora and fauna.

4. The Contracting Parties shall endeavour through management to increase waterfowl populations on appropriate wetlands.

5. The Contracting Parties shall promote the training of personnel competent in the fields of wetland research, management and wardening.

Article 5

1. The Contracting Parties shall consult with each other about implementing obligations arising from this Convention especially in the case of a wetland extending over the territories of more than one Contracting Party or where a water system is shared by Contracting Parties.

2. They shall at the same time endeavour to co-ordinate and support present and future policies and regulations concerning the conservation of wetlands and their flora and fauna.

Article 6

1. The Contracting Parties shall, as the necessity arises, convene Conferences on the Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl.

2. These Conferences shall have an advisory character and shall be competent inter alia:

a) to discuss the implementation of this Convention;

b) to discuss additions to and changes in the List;

c) to consider information regarding changes in the ecological character of wetlands included in the List provided in accordance with Paragraph 2 of Article 3;

d) to make general or specific recommendations to the Contracting Parties regarding the conservation, management and wise use of wetlands and their flora and fauna;

e) to request relevant international bodies to prepare reports and statistics on matters which are essentially international in character affecting wetlands.

3. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that those responsible at all levels for wetlands management shall be informed of, and take into consideration, recommendations of such Conferences concerning the conservation, management and wise use of wetlands and their flora and fauna.

Article 7

1. The representatives of the Contracting Parties at such Conferences should include persons who are experts on wetlands or waterfowl by reason of knowledge and experience gained in scientific, administrative or other appropriate capacities.

2. Each of the Contracting Parties represented at a Conference shall have one vote, recommendations being adopted by a simple majority of the votes cast, provided that not less than half the Contracting Parties cast votes.

Article 8

1. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources shall perform the continuing bureau duties under this Convention until such time as another organisation or government is appointed by a majority of two-thirds of all Contracting Parties.

2. The continuing bureau duties shall be, inter alia:

a) to assist in the convening and organizing of Conferences specified in Article 6;

b) to maintain the List of Wetlands of International Importance and to be informed by the Contracting Parties of any additions, extensions, deletions or restrictions concerning wetlands included in the List provided in accordance with Paragraph 5 of Article 2;

c) to be informed by the Contracting Parties of any changes in the ecological character of wetlands included in the List provided in accordance with Paragraph 2 of Article 3;

d) to forward notification of any alterations to the List, or changes in character of wetlands included therein, to all Contracting Parties and to arrange for these matters to be discussed at the next Conference;

e) to make known to the Contracting Party concerned, the recommendations of the Conferences in respect of such alterations to the List or of changes in the character of wetlands included therein.

Article 9

1. This Convention shall remain open for signature indefinitely.

2. Any member of the United Nations or of one of the Specialized Agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency or Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice may become a party to this Convention by:

a) signature without reservation as to ratification;

b) signature subject to ratification followed by ratification;

c) accession

3. Ratification or accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of ratification or accession with the Director General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, (hereinafter referred to as "the Depository").

Article 10

1. This Convention shall enter into force four months after seven States have become Parties to this Convention in accordance with Paragraph 2 of Article 9.

2. Thereafter this Convention shall enter into force for each Contracting Party four months after the day of its signature without reservation as to ratification, or its deposit of an instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 11

1. This Convention shall continue in force for an indefinite period.

2. Any Contracting Party may denounce this Convention after a period of five years from the date on which it entered into force for that Party by giving written notice thereof to the Depository. Denunciation shall take effect four months after the day on which notice thereof is received by the Depository.

Article 12

1. The Depository shall inform all States that have signed and acceded to this Convention as soon as possible of:

a) signatures to this Convention;

b) deposits of instruments of ratification of this Convention;

c) deposits of instruments of accession to this Convention;

d) the date of entry into force of this Convention;

e) notifications of denunciation of this Convention.

2. When this Convention has entered into force, the Depository shall have it registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

DONE at ………. this ………. day of ………. 19…. in a single original in the English, French, German and Russian languages, in any case of divergency the English text prevailing, which shall be deposited with the Depository which shall send true copies thereof to all Contracting Parties.